Over the years I've met many people with a desire to engage in golden showers or urinal play who refrain due to health concerns. There are a lot of misconceptions about transmission of STDs through urine, and this blog is going to clear them up. I've included links to reputable sources. Different types of urine play come with different risks but all of them are either theoretical or require a situation so specific it's unlikely to happen. For the sake of risk management, I'm going to detail those risks according to type of play.
Golden Showers (without consumption, not entering the mouth or eyes)
If you have an open wound and a person urinates in it, you could be at risk for Hepatitis B or C but ONLY if the person has visible amounts of blood in their urine. Trace amounts would not be enough to infect the recipient. There is no risk for any other STD during this type of play.
Urinal Play or Piss Drinking
There is a *theoretical* risk of Chlamydia or Gonorrhea with this activity. What does that mean? It means that there has never been a reported case of a person contracting Chlamydia or Gonorrhea through urine consumption without genital to mouth contact or ejaculation occuring. Genital secretions that would be present in urine simply from passing over the vulva or through the penis would be diluted to the point that transmission would be nearly impossible. https://www.thedailybeast.com/is-urine-sterile-are-golden-showers-unhealthy
(Side note: I do not consider The Daily Beast a reputable source, but this article includes an interview with Dr. Handsfield, Chief Medical Advisor for the American Sexual Health Association)
If there is visible blood in the urine, the same risk stated above for Hepatitis B or C applies.
If you have ever kissed a stranger you have performed a higher risk activity for the transmission of STDs than drinking (blood-free) urine. That's it.
There is zero risk for the following in piss play:
HPV: Only transmitted through skin-to-skin contact https://www.plannedparenthood.org/learn/stds-hiv-safer-sex/hpv
Herpes: Requires skin-to-skin contact with friction https://herpes.org.uk/frequently-asked-questions/passing-transmitting-herpes/
Hepatitis A: Not transmitted via urine
HIV: Not present in urine, actually a very fragile virus once outside the body
Syphilis: Only spread by direct contact with a sore https://www.plannedparenthood.org/learn/stds-hiv-safer-sex/syphilis
Trichomoniasis: Only spread from genital to genital through sexual secretions https://www.plannedparenthood.org/learn/stds-hiv-safer-sex/trichomoniasis
There are three things you can ACTUALLY contract from urine, and none of them are STDs:
Typhoid: This is incredibly uncommon in the United States, Canada, and Western Europe. https://www.cdc.gov/typhoid-fever/
Urinary Schistosomiasis: Only in subtropical and tropical countries https://www.cdc.gov/parasites/schistosomiasis/
CMV: Over half of all adults have this at some point in their life without symptom. Only a concern for immunocompromised adults. https://www.cdc.gov/cmv/index.html
Hopefully this knowledge gives you the peace of mind to explore your desires! Watersports may not be for everyone but it is a low-risk activity.